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对外经贸大学经济学综合讲义(六)

2015-07-21 14:24 【导读】爱考机构 2016 人大法学院考研全套资料预览 需要订购的可以电话 010-51283340 或加 QQ : 744569778 咨询 版权所有 侵权必究 对外经贸815 经济学综合 一、选择 1.某消费者效用函数TU=4X-3X^3,

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 对外经贸815经济学综合
 
一、选择
1.某消费者效用函数TU=4X-3X^3,X为某种商品的消费量。则该消费这效用极大化的消费量为
A X=1/4    B X=2/3     C X=3/4     D X=2/5
 
2.下列属于企业决策中的沉淀成本的是:
A 购买机器设备的支出     B 广告支出
C 租用厂房的支出         D 支付给劳动力的工资支出
 
3.根据斯塔克伯格模型的分析,两个生产相同产品且成本相投的寡头厂商顺序决定产量时,
A先决策的厂商获利更多      B后决策的厂商获利更多
C两个厂商获利相等          D不能确定哪一个厂商获利更多。
 
4.如果规模报酬不变,单位时间里增加了20%的劳动投入,而保持资本投入不变,那么产出将:
A 增加20%     B 减少不到20%    C 减少20%    D 增加不到20%
 
5 某产品市场在完全竞争条件下实现了均衡,则
A,消费者实现了最大效用     B,生产者实现了最大利润
C,需求量等于供给量         D,以上都对
 
6政府购买支出的变化导致收入变动超过最初支出的变化量,这是因为:
A,政府购买支出对收入变化很敏感    C,经济最初处于总收支均衡点
B,消费者支出随收入变化而变化      D,潜在GDP发生了变化。 
 
7,通货膨胀对收入和财富再分配的影响是指通货膨胀:
A造成收入结构的变化         B使收入普遍上升
C是债权人收入上升           D使收入普遍下降
8.下列不属于供给冲击的是
A工人罢工      B暴雨使得农业减产     C货币供给下降     D铁矿石涨价
9.假设某国经济的生产函数为Cobb-Douglas函数形式。其中劳动报酬的份额为0.7, 资本的份额为0.3,如果资本存量增长率等于1.2%, 实际产出的增长率为
A 1.2%        B 1.4%         C 2.6%        D 2.9%
10.本国实行固定汇率制度,其主要贸易伙伴发生通货膨胀,则
A本国贸易逆差        B政府将购进外汇
C本币供给将减少      D以上都对
 
二.判断下列表述的经济含义是否正确 每小题1分,共10分。
1.风险溢价表示了一个风险规避者愿意为规避风险而付出的代价。
2.沿着预算线移动,消费者的货币收入是不变的。
3.在完全竞争厂商的短期生产中,当厂商的平均收益等于平均成本时,厂商可以继续生产,也可以不生产,一次该均衡点被称为停止营业点或关闭点。
4.在买方垄断市场中,买方支付的价格等于他所得到的边际价值。
5.两种商品在消费者之间的有效配置意味着这两种商品的边际替代率对所有消费者来说都是相同的。
6.张先生买彩票中了1万元,这笔钱应该被计入GDP。
7.短期宏观经济均衡时,劳动力市场仍然可能出于非均衡状态。
8.当国家间的资本完全流动时,财政政策在开放经济中的效应大于在封闭经济中的效应。
9.IS曲线和LM曲线的交点表示产品市场和货币市场的同时均衡,且出于充分就业条件下的均衡。
10.洛伦兹曲线的弯曲程度越大,收入分配越不平等。
 
三.名词解释
1.连带外部效应(network externality)   2.期望效用     3.相机抉择政策      4.价格粘性
 
四. 计算分析题 每题10分,共20分。
1. 假设某完全竞争的成本不变行业中,所有厂商的长期成本函数都为LTC=q^3-6q^2+20q   q为产量。试求:
(1)如果产品的市场价格为20,利润最大化时厂商的产量和利润: 3分。
(2)该行业长期均衡时的价格和单个厂商的产量 3分。
(3)行业的长期供给函数 2分
(4)若市场需求函数为Q=100-5P,行业长期均衡时的厂商数目。2分。
2.给定已过的宏观盛产函数为Y=AN^(2/3)K^(1/3),其中Y为总产出,K=390为资本总量,N=13为劳动力数量,假定劳动力数量按人口每年以1%的增长速度增长,资本存量的折旧率为5%,技术水平A为1。请根据具体的计算结果回答:
(1)该经济的人均产出讲随时间如何变化?5分。
(2)劳动报酬和资本报酬的比例随时间如何变化?5分。
 
五.证明与简答题 每题8分,共16分
1. 证明:若消费者的全部收入只购买两种商品,那么这两种商品不可能都是劣等品。
2.作图说明总需求曲线的推导过程并解释总需求曲线向右下方倾斜的原因。
 
六.论述题 每题14分,共28分。
1.目前,在北京的一些购物中心地铁站等处,出现了不少优惠券终端机。顾客的终端机前选择商户,打印优惠券。凭优惠券在消费时可享受5折到9折不等的优惠。每天有不少年轻人光顾这些优惠终端机,体验省钱消费之道。厂商为什么要发这些优惠券?为什么它不简单地降低产品的价格,并生下印制和回收这些优惠券的成本?
2.中央银行控制货币供应量时所能采取的工具有哪些?根据总供求模型分析,当工资随时间缓慢调整时,名义货币供给量的增加对价格水平,实际产出和实际货币供给量的短期影响及长期影响。
 
七、专业英语 英译中,共计50分。
1、market structure and innovation 20分
Which market conditions are optimal for effective and sustained innovation to occur? This is a question that has vexed economists and business academics for many years. High levels of research and development spending are frequently observed in oligopolistic markets, although this does not always translate itself inot a fast pace of innovation.
The recent work of William Baumol (2002) provides support for oligopoly as market structure best suited for innovative behavior. Innovation is perceived as being “mandatory” for businesses that need to establish a cost-advantage or significant lead in product quality over their rivals.
“as soon as quality competition and sales effort are admitted into the sacred precinct of theory, the price variable is ousted from its dominant position….but in capitalist reality as distinguished from its textbook picture, it is not that kind of competition which counts but the competition which commands a decisive cost or quality advantage and which strikes not at the margins of profits and the outputs of the existing firms but at their foundations and their very lives. This kind of competition is as much more effective than the other as bombardment is in comparison with forcing a door.”
Supernormal profits persist in the long-run in an oligopoly and these can be used to finance research and development.
2、 the other exit strategy 20分
Independent budget offices would help politicians’ promises to be prudent tomorrow. Economic policymakers across the rich world face two delicate balancing acts over the new few years. The first, involving monetary policy is being widely discussed and carefully planned by teams of technocrats. Central bankers must keep their balance-sheets big and interest rates low for long enough to prevent deflation setting in, but they also have to be prepared to change things quickly to prevent inflation taking off. The second balancing act, involving fiscal policy, depends on politicians rather than specialists- and has, so far, been shamefully ill-planned.
In the short term public largesse is a necessary response to the slump in private demand. Budget deficits have ballooned – to an average of almost 10% of GDP across the big, rich countries – for good reasons, as governments have bolstered their banks and provided fiscal stimulus, and as sagging economics have sapped tax revenues. Withdrawing that support too fast would be foolish. Particularly after a banking bust, premature fiscal tightening can push week economies back into decline, as Japan’s ill-timed consumption-tax increase in 1997 showed. The same risk holds today. Particularly if the fiscal squeeze involves incentive-dulling tax increase.
But public profligacy cannot last forever. Even if the nascent recovery takes hold, the IMF reckons the gross government debt of the rich world’s big economies will reach an average of 115% of GDP by 2014 and continue to rise thereafter in some places, notably America. The weight of this debt will eventually push up interest rates, crowd out private investment and sap economic growth. Far nastier outcomes, from out-of-control inflation to outright default, are conceivable.
3. arbitration 10分
All disputes in connection with this contract or the execution thereof shall be settled by negotiation between two parties. If no settlement can be reached, the case in dispute shall then be submitted for arbitration in the country of defendant in accordance with the arbitration regulations of the arbitration organization of the defendant country. The decision made by the arbitration organization shall be taken as final and binding upon both parties. The arbitration expense shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the arbitration organization.
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